A urethral diverticulum is a pouch on the wall of the urethra that a person can be born with or it can develop later in life. There are two types of urethral diverticulum:
- Congenital Diverticulum – An area of weakness in the urethral wall causing some of the lining of the urethra to protrude.
- Acquired Urethral Diverticulum – Usually a result over time and may cause pain with intercourse, urinary incontinence, urinary obstruction, or dribbling after urination.
Cysts are sacs of tissue that are filled with fluid or pus. Urethral cysts are cysts that are in or around the urethral area. Urethral cysts may cause no symptoms at all, while in some instances, they may block the urethra; causing bleeding, painful urination and pain during sexual intercourse. A lump may be noticed at the opening of the urethra if a cyst is located near the opening. Urethral cysts are normally non-cancerous and may be caused by infection or inflammation. Some cases of urethral cysts are thought to be hereditary.
Types of Urethral Cysts May Include:
- Paraurethral Cysts – The paraurethral cyst appears on the paraurethral glands, located in the vaginal wall near the beginning of the urethra in females. They appear yellow or white in color and constrict the size of the urethral opening. Paraurethral cysts usually require no treatment, although drainage may be required if the cyst is severely restricting urinary flow.
- Urethral Caruncles – Urethral caruncles are common in post-menopausal women that are not using hormone replacement therapy. This condition is marked by a small reddish membrane pushing out from the urethral opening. Urethral caruncles only require treatment if they are problematic. In those cases, the caruncle can be treated with estrogen cream or surgically removed.